HR Dictionary

Some comprehensive terms often used in the HR world.

Also pls comment your thoughts and any new terms to be included.

term Definition 
360-degree feedback an appraisal process whereby an individual is rated on their performance by people who know something about their work. this can include direct reports, peers, managers, and is familiar with their work can be included in the feedback process. the individual usually completes a self-assessment customers or clients; in fact anybody who is credible to the individual exercise on their performance, which is also used in the process.
5ds  an individual approach to managing stress that includes five developments (develop a right attitude about your stress, develop right interaction with your work life and non-work life, develop a right physical competence to cope with your stress, develop opportunities to change your stressful environment, and develop your related knowledge and skills)
absolute ratings a rating method where the rater assigns a specific value on a fixed scale to the behavior or performance of an individual instead of assigning ratings based on comparisons between other individuals.
achievement test  a test that is held to measure the degree to which the candidate possesses knowledge, skills and attitudes with regard to the relevant job
adapter role  a role whereby hr department correctly anticipates changes and train employees to adapt to these changes
addendum(to a contract) an additional document not included in the main part of the contract. it is an ad hoc item, usually compiled and executed after the main document, which contains additional terms, obligations or information
advisory role  advisory role of the hr department is a role whereby the department provides advice to all the managers in respect of hrm
affirmative action also : positive discrimination. carried out on behalf of women and disadvantaged groups and members of such groups are placed in dominant positions.
age limit regulation establishing the age when an employee can choose for retirement
agent method  a method of layoffs in which layoff and hiring are done by a separate organisation on behalf of the organisation under a certain fee this is called outsourcing alternatively
alternative work schedule the work schedules which differ from the standard work schedule, including but not limited to: part-time, shared time and flexible-time schedules.
annual leave paid time off work granted by employers to employees to be used for whatever the employee wishes. depending on the employer’s policies, differing number of days may be offered, but no less than 20 days for a full time work contract, according to romanian legislation
applicant a person who has indicated an interest in a position at an organization and expressed his interest by submitting a resume and/or a cover letter and/or filling out an application form (either a hard copy or online)
appraisal an act of assessing something or someone
apprentice training  a training method that gives training to people who are new to the jobs which are craft jobs such as plumber, barber, machinist, carpenter, printer, electrician and tool and die maker
appropriate employee/work force  employees of the organization who are competent, motivated, committed and involved
aptitude test test designed to assess what a person is capable of doing; to predict what a person is able to learn or do given the right education and instruction; it represents a person’s level of competency to perform a certain type of task
arbitrary dates approach  to evaluate job performances of all employees under the evaluator at different dates
assessment center a process used in the selection of candidates for a job in an organization that employs a variety of techniques and multiple observers in a closed setting and it’s based on an analysis of the skills and competencies for the job in question exercises for the candidates are selected in order to reveal information regarding the required qualities and attributes
assessment centre  a special selection method that uses multiple methods of selection and multiple evaluators lasing for one day or two days or several days
attrition a term used to describe voluntary and involuntary terminations, deaths, and employee retirements that result in a reduction to the employer’s physical workforce.
audit a planned and documented activity performed by qualified personnel to determine by investigation, examination or evaluation of objective evidence, the adequacy and compliance with established procedures or applicable documents and the effectiveness of implementation.
audit or monitoring role  a role whereby hr specialists check on the extent to which hr systems are being adhered
autocratic leadership leader determines policy of the organisation, instructs members what to do/make, subjective in approach, aloof and impersonal.
autonomy  the degree of independence and freedom the job holder has
average income a measure of the wealth of the population of a nation, particularly in comparison to other nations, often used to measure a country’s standard of living
background checking the process of authenticating the information supplied to a potential employer by a job applicant in his or her resume, application and interviews
background investigation  a selection method that attempts to reveal real nature of the job applicant in terms of character, employment history, academic history or financial history
balanced scorecard a popular strategic management concept developed in the early 1990’s by drs. robert kaplan and david norton, the balanced scorecard is a management and measurement system which enables organisations to clarify their vision and strategy and translate them into action. the goal of the balanced scorecard is to tie business performance to organisational strategy by measuring results in four areas: financial performance, customer knowledge, internal business processes, and learning and growth.
bandwidth time  all the possible hours of working per day under flex-time
base salary a fixed amount of money paid to an employee by an employer in return for work performed, that does not include benefits, bonuses or any other potential compensation from an employer
behavioral interview an interview technique which focuses on a candidates past experiences, behaviours, knowledge, skills and abilities by asking the candidate to provide specific examples of when they have demonstrated certain behaviours or skills as a means of predicting future behaviour and performance
behaviorally anchored rating scale (bars) an appraisal that requires raters list important dimensions of a particular job and collect information regarding the critical behaviors that distinguish between successful and unsuccessful performance. these critical behaviours are then categorised and appointed a numerical value which is used as the basis for rating performance.
behaviour modelling  a modern method of training primarily focusing on teaching interpersonal skills and cognitive skills
behaviour modification approach to discipline  a step-by-step procedure to be followed in practicing positive corrective discipline this involves giving the offender an oral or written warning
behavioural based interview an interview technique which focuses on a candidates past experiences, behaviours, knowledge, skills and abilities by asking the candidate to provide specific examples of when they have demonstrated certain behaviours or skills as a means of predicting future behaviour and performance.
behavioural competency the behaviour of the employee which is the subject of measurement and appraisal in terms of whether or not the behaviours shown by an employee are those identified by job analysis/competency profiling as those contributing to team and/or organisational success.
behavioural elements  one category of elements of job design that is concerned with elements which lead to employee satisfaction
behavioural observation scales (bos)  a method of performance evaluation in which directly related job behaviours are put on 5-point scales and the evaluator is to check on scales how often the employee was actually observed engaging in the behaviours
behaviourally anchored rating scales (bars)  a method of performance evaluation in which behaviours directly related to the job are arranged on certain scales and job performance is rated by selecting behaviours relevant to the employee being considered
behaviours  the ways the employee acts in relation to the job they include particular activities carried out in performing the job
benchmarking a technique using quantitative or qualitative data to make comparisons between different organisations or different sections of the organisations
benefit  an indirect reward paid by the organisation to the employee because he/she is a member of the organisation
benefits a form of compensation paid by employers to employees over and above the amount of pay specified as a base salary or hourly rate of pay; a portion of a total compensation package for employees
bereavement leave  a specific number of paid days off following the death of an employee’s spouse, parent, child grandparent or in-law so that the employee may attend funeral proceedings, etc.
bereavement policy the company’s practice about allowing paid and unpaid employee time off when a family member, relative or friend dies
blind advertisement  a recruitment advertisement that does not reveal the name and address of the organisation
bonus  one-time payment, usually per year to the employee as an additional income
bonus pay compensation over and above the amount of pay specified as a base salary or hourly rate of pay
branding the process of identifying and differentiating an organization’s products, processes or services from another organization by giving it a name, phrase or other mark.
broadbanding a pay structure that consolidates a large number of narrower pay grades into fewer broad bands with wider salary range.
buddy system  a method of utilizing an experienced employee of the organisation to induct a new employee
bumping the practice of allowing more senior level employees whose positions have been slotted for elimination or downsizing the option of accepting an alternative position within the organisation, for which they may be qualified to perform and which is currently occupied by another employee with less seniority.
buyout a common method for reducing the number and cost of employees; the employer offers some employees or all employees the opportunity to receive a large severance package in return for leaving their employment
calculation economic process that uses indicators, prices, coefficients and other mathematical operations for registration in accountancy of funds and economic processes and the results obtained
career  a series of jobs that a person had in his/her life
career anchors  self-perceived talents and values guiding a person to make his/her career decisions
career development  a process by which an employee undertakes personal improvement actions in order to accomplish a career plan (the career goal and the career path to reach that goal)
career goal  a job that is expected by the employee to get
career management  the hrm function that plans and develops careers of employees for the benefits of employees and the organisation
career path  the sequential pattern of jobs that forms a career of an employee
career planning  a process by which an employee chooses career goals and determines career paths to achieve those career goals
career plateau  a state where an employee has no upward movements further
case study method  a managerial training method that gives training through a written description of a problematic situation that requires to be analysed for solution
central tendency  an evaluator error that occurs when the evaluator rates an employee averagely on many or all pe criteria though he/she has not performed averagely
centralisation  centralisation in the hr department involves concentration of hr decision-making authority within top management of the department
change management the deliberate effort of an organisation to anticipate change and to manage its introduction, implementation, and consequences.
checklist method  a method of performance evaluation under which the evaluator is required to choose statements from the list of statements relating to the job
clause provision contained in a legal document (contract, treaty)
clean slate  a clean slate scheme to limit the effect of an individual’s convictions in most circumstances (subject to certain exceptions set out in section 19) if the individual satisfies the relevant eligibility criteria.
coaching  a training method in which a senior manager or an expert works as the coach and trains a trainee or a few trainees on the job
code of conduct written collection of the rules, principles, values and employee expectations, behavior and relationships that an organization considers significant and believes are fundamental to their successful operation
coherence  in the hrm context, coherence refers to a state in which all the hrm functions (relevant schemes or systems developed for implementation in a particular organisation) fit together well and logically so that they form a united whole
collective bargaining the process by which [an] employer[s] will negotiate employment contracts with [a] union[s]. a process in which employer’s representatives/managers and worker representatives/trade union meet, discuss and attempt to negotiate about working conditions and terms of employment the purpose of collective bargaining is to reach an agreement what is called collective agreement
collective bargaining agreement agreement between employee groups and employers detailing pay and work conditions including wages, working hours, vacation, and holiday entitlements, termination of service provisions and sometimes benefit entitlements
combined salary and commission plan  a plan of the sales incentives that includes a straight salary and a commission
common law decisions of the courts also known as precedent. distinguished from legislation.
accident compensation compensation for injury to an employee arising out of and in the course of employment that is paid to the worker or dependents by an employer whose strict liability for such compensation is established by statute. where established by statute, workers’ compensation is generally the exclusive remedy for injuries arising from employment, with some exceptions. workers’ compensation statutes commonly include explicit exclusions for injury caused intentionally, by willful misconduct, and by voluntary intoxication from alcohol or illegal drugs.
compensation total amount of the monetary and non-monetary pay provided to an employee by an employer in return for work performed as required
competence/competency  an individual’s capability or ability of performing a certain task or a role or a job successfully
competencies ‘an underlying characteristic of a person’ ‘motive, trait, skill, aspect of one’s self-image or social role, or a body of knowledge’.
competency approach to job analysis  an approach focusing on the competencies which individuals should have to perform jobs successfully
competency-based pay competency based pay is a compensation system that recognises employees for the depth, breadth, and types of skills they obtain and apply in their work. also known as skill based and knowledge based pay.
competitive advantage  the ability that an organisation can have a relatively better market share and then a better profit or rate of return on investment compared with its competitors
compressed workweeks  a non-traditional work schedule in which employee works for fewer days per week but more hours for each day of working
compulsory consultation  a state that it is compulsory for manager to consult the human resource manager before making any decision relating to his/her subordinates
conceptual competency  the ability to understand the organisation as a total entity and the ability of defining phenomena, imagining, analysing, synthesising, theorising, planning and organising
concurrent authority  a form of higher legitimate power delegated to the human resource manager compared with compulsory staff consultation a state where manager is not in a position to take a human resource decision without getting the approval of the human resource manager
concurrent validity  the extent to which the test scores obtained by current employees relate to some measure of their job performance
confidentiality agreement an agreement restricting an employee from disclosing confidential or proprietary information.
conflict of interest an employee has competing interests or loyalties that either are, or potentially can be, at odds with each other.
consistency  a criterion stating that decisions should be consistent with business strategy
conspect reliability  the extent to which two interviewers agree with their evaluations about the interviewees
construct validity  the extent to which the construct (a special concept that is basically abstract and is believed to be a determinant of job performance) is related to job performance
constructive dismissal 1. coercion by threats to act promises to refrain and includes a resignation given as an alternative to be dismissed. ; 2. a breach of duty by the employer leading a worker to resign.
constructive termination  purposefully the employer influences the employee so that he/she leaves the organisation permanently
content validity  the extent to which the test adequately represents what is involved in the job being considered
contingent workers employees who may be: casual labour, part-timers, freelancers, subcontractors, independent professionals and consultants.
continuity  a criterion that states that bases for decisions should not be changed within a short time
contract for services an agreement with an independent contractor.
contract of service an employment agreement.
core competencies the skills, knowledge and abilities which employees must possess in order to successfully perform job functions which are essential to business operations.
core labour force a small group of permanent workers, for example, strategists, planners.
core time  a time when all employees must be present under flex-time system
corporate mission the aims and objectives of an organisation.
corrective discipline  activities carried out to deal with rule infractions in the way that will discourage future infractions
cost leadership  a strategy in which an organisation gains a competitive advantage by providing the same services or goods as its competitors, but at a lower cost
cover letter a customized, business letter that accompanies the resume when a candidate applies for a position with your company
critical incident method  a managerial training method that gives training through a short description of a very important event that involves at least a problem needed to be solved
critical incidents a method of avoiding the subjective judgements which are the feature of most ranking and rating systems. it is the keeping, by management, of a record of on-job incidents or behaviours which may be examples of [in]effective behaviour and used as background information for subsequent discussions and performance appraisals.
critical incidents method  a method of performance evaluation under which the evaluator prepares and maintains a logbook for employees with the intention of recording important incidents of negative and positive behaviours and results when they occur over the period of evaluation
culture shock  a strong feeling of fear or distress of the new employee owing to a significant difference between the organisational culture and his/her own home or previous organisational culture
curriculum vitae a document that provides an employer with a detailed statement of a job candidate’s prior work experience, education, and accomplishments
customer capital the relationships an organisation has with the people it does business with, including suppliers, ‘brand equity’ and ‘goodwill’.
cyclical unemployment a form of unemployment – rises in times of economic recession and falls in times of prosperity. now shows signs of being able to withstand increased prosperity.
decentralisation  decentralisation in the hr department involves distributing hr decision-making authority to managers who are at middle and first level management in the department
decision tree model one of the contingency theories of leadership – developed by vroom and yettor (1973).
deductions (in payroll) reductions that the employer makes from employees’ paychecks, voluntary or imposed by gouvernment institution
delayering the removal of hierarchical layers in an organisation.
delegated legislation laws made by ministers by authority of an act of parliament.
delegation assignment of authority and responsibility to another person (normally from a manager to a subordinate) to carry out specific activities
delphi technique  a forecasting technique of hr demand that solicits estimates from a group of experts having hr department planner acting as an intermediary the hr estimate is based on the consensus of opinion of the expert group that is usually obtained from several rounds of soliciting
demotion  the appointment of an employee who is currently working in the organisation to a job that is lower than the job being performed by him/her
depth of a job  authority and responsibilities for planning and controlling the job
deregulation the removal of entities such as financial markets, road and transport from governmental control.
detachment an action of temporary changing of job, at the employer’s disposal to another employer, for the purpose of execution of works in the interest of the latter
development  making the employee ready to perform a future job of higher rank
differential piecework  a type of individual incentive plan in which employee is paid a piece rate for each of the units up to a standard output and a higher piece rate for each of the units produced over the standard
differentiation a strategy of being unique in an industry on dimensions customers value.
disciplinary investigation  a systematic and fair inquiry conducted by the organisation in respect of a rule violation (serious) with the objective of determining whether the rule violator is guilty or not evidently
disciplinary procedure a procedure carried out in the workplace in the event of an employee committing some act contrary to terms of the employment agreement. if the act is regarded as gross misconduct this may lead to summary dismissal.
discipline interview  a face-to-face formal session between the manager and the offending employee and this represents a higher level of concern with a breach of rule/s this interview implements corrective discipline in terms of written warning or other more severe penalty
discipline meeting  a face-to-face discussion between the manager and the employee who has violated the rule or rules this involves punitive discipline in terms of oral warning
discrimination the favouring of one group of people to the detriment of others.
dismissal  the moving of an employee out of the organisation permanently on disciplinary ground
displacement effect  a negative result of grievances: employee work time diverted from production tasks to grievance processing
distance learning the process of delivering educational or instructional programmes to locations away from a classroom or site to another location by varying technology such as video or audio-conferencing, computers, web-based applications or other multimedia communications.
distributive bargaining related to the process of negotiation. known also as competitive bargaining – the parties are concerned with their respective shares of the benefits available and compete and conflict with each other until one side wins an increased share at the expense of the other.
division of labour  this element of job design refers to breaking works into their smallest parts and employing separate persons to do each part separately
dress code a set of standards that companies develop to help provide their employees with guidance about what is appropriate to wear to work
dual labour markets organisations will operate with a small core labour force and a peripheral labour force.
dual-career couple  a family where both husband and wife are working and are concerned with careers
due diligence a critical component of mergers and acquisitions, it is the process by investigation and evaluation is conducted to examine the details of a particular investment or purchase by obtaining sufficient and accurate information or documents which may influence the outcome of the transaction.
early retirement when an employee decides to retire (leave work) before the age at which he or she becomes eligible to collect retirement resources
e-commerce the use of the internet to market and sell goods and services
effective utilization  employment of human resources for organizational effectiveness, which is the extent to which goals of the organization have been realized
efficiency elements  one category of elements of job design that is concerned with elements which lead to minimise time, effort and cost which are needed to perform a particular job
efficient utilization  optimum use of employees by eradicating (or minimizing) wastage
emotional intelligence describes the mental ability an individual possess enabling him/her to be sensitive and understanding to the emotions of others as well as being able to manage their own emotions and impulses.
employee an individual who was hired by an employer to do a specific job, on the base of an individual work contract
employee discipline management  a systematic process of controlling and influencing all employees in the organisation to achieve and maintain standards of behaviour (rules of behaviour, alternatively the code of behaviour at work) in order to accomplish organisational goals and objectives
employee induction  the hrm function that systematically and formally introduces new employees to the organisation, the jobs, the work groups to which they will belong and the work environment where they will work
employee mentoring programme  a special programme designed to induct, train and develop the new employee so that he/she intends to stay within the organisation for a long time it involves use of mentor who is a well-qualified and experienced senior employee
employee performance evaluation  the systematic process of identifying, measuring, influencing and developing job performance of the employees in the organisation in relation to the set norms and standards for a particular period of time in order to achieve various purposes
employee productivity  the relationship between employee inputs and outputs
employee relations a broad term used to refer to the general management and planning of activities related to developing, maintaining, and improving employee relationships by communicating with employees, processing grievances/disputes, etc.
employee retention organisational policies and practices designed to meet the diverse needs of employees, and create an environment that encourages employees to remain employed.
employee welfare  all the facilities and comforts provided by the employer to the employees for enhancing their economic state, social status, health, efficiency and effectiveness
employee welfare management  the group of activities involved in the development, implementation and maintenance of a fair and adequate system of facilities and comforts to enhance standard of living of employees
employer an organization, institution, government entity, agency, company, professional services firm, nonprofit association, small business, store, or individual who employs or puts to work, an employee
employment court ultimate court dealing with employment disputes.
employment function  the combination of recruitment function and selection function
employment relations authority new body to be set up which replaces the employment tribunal.
employment test  an examination specially held to assess the degree of the suitability of the job applicant for the job vacancy
empowerment the process of enabling or authorising an individual to think, behave, take action, and control work and decision-making in autonomous ways.
equity theory based on the notion that people are motivated by a desire for fairness, that is, to be treated fairly and will compare their own efforts and the rewards of others in the organisation with a view to judging the fairness of their treatment.
ergonomics  a job design technique that considers matching physical setting of work with physiological characteristics of the employees
essay appraisal  a method of performance evaluation under which the evaluator writes an essay in respect of the employee’s job performance
ethics of pe  moral beliefs and rules about right and wrong behaviour of evaluators
evaluator manual  a handbook that tells evaluator how to do performance evaluation
exit interview an interview between a member of staff of the organisation that an employee is leaving to ascertain the reasons for the employee leaving the organisation. should not be carried out by employee’s immediate superior. used for possible changes.
external employee referrals  informing present employees who are working in other organisations about job vacancies and requesting them to recommend their friends or relatives or other qualified persons seeking jobs
external equity  degree to which pay received by an employee in an organisation is related to pays received by similar employees in other organisations
external recruitment policy  procuring candidates to fill vacancies from outside of the organisation
extrapolation  a forecasting technique of hr demand that is based on past data and an attempt is made to find a trend that might continue into future based on the trend, forecast is developed
extrinsic rewards two forms : money and non-money rewards. examples : job enrichment, job enlargement, personal and working relationships with colleagues and supervisors and managers.
face validity  the degree to which the test appears superficially what it is supposed to measure
factor analysis sheet  a special form used to evaluate a job under the point system
factor comparison method  a quantitative job evaluation method that evaluates several selected jobs (called key jobs) according to several evaluation factors and then evaluates other jobs based on results of evaluation of the key jobs
feedback  the extent to which clear information of results of the employee’s efficiency and effectiveness is provided
field review method  a method of performance evaluation under which a personnel management specialist does the evaluation of an employee
first-in-first-out (fifo)  a method of layoffs which involves doing first layoff of the employee who had been hired first
fixed term employment an employee and an employer may agree that the employment of the employee will end at the close of a specified date or period or on the occurrence of a specified event or at the conclusion of a specified project.
fixed time approach  to evaluate employees’ performances within a certain period of time that may be one day or two days or several days depending on the number of employees and workload of the evaluator
flexible schedule a schedule that allows an employee to work hours that differ from the normal company start and stop time
flexible welfare services plan  a welfare plan that allows employees to select the facilities and comforts which match with their individual needs
flex-time  a non-traditional work schedule in which employee works for a certain number of hours (usually eight) per day but varying times of starting and ending the daily work
flex-tour  a form of flex-time in which employees are required to choose starting and ending times from an established list of various options
forced distribution method  a method of performance evaluation under which the evaluator is required to sort employees into different classifications (approximate gradings such as best 10 percent, next 20 percent, middle 40 percent, next 20 percent and lowest 10 percent)
formal expert survey  a technique of hr demand forecasting that surveys managers who are experts about their department’s future employee needs and centralises information obtained
formal grievance settlement procedure  a written guideline to action setting forth a list of chronological steps to be followed in handling employee grievances
freedom of association the right to belong to a union. as protected by the human rights act 1993.
full time employee an employee who works a minimum number of hours defined as such by his/her employer, usually 8 hours a day, 40 hours a week
functional authority  a form of authority that gives line authority to the human resource manager with regard to some specified hrm functions
functional hrm metrics  statistics used to measure the degree of successful performance of functions of hrm
functional job analysis the preparation required for the construction of a job description. it is necessary to collect data on the job to be advertised.
gainsharing incentive plan  a group incentive programme under which employees and the organisation share financial gains obtained due to improvements of productivity and profits according to a predetermined formula
garnisment deducting from the pay of an employee an amount of money order by the court
generations 1 baby boomers –the term used to describe those individuals born between 1945 and 1970.
generations 2 generation x – the term used to describe individuals born between 1965 and 1980.
generations 3 generation y – the term used to describe individuals born between 1985 and the present.
generations 4 generation i – the term used to describe children born after 1994 that are growing up in the internet age.
geographic differentials pay differences established for the same job based on variations in costs of living or costs of labor among two or more geographical areas
gliding time  a form of flex-time that has no particular flex option to be selected by the employee the employee can come at any time during flex-hours and leave the organisation at any time during flex-hours
goal setting the process of setting and assigning a set of specific and attainable goals to be met by an individual, group or organisation.
goals objectives, targets, purposes, intentions and plans that a person intendes to achieve
good faith bargaining a duty to conduct negotiations where two parties meet and confer at reasonable times with open minds and the intention of reaching an agreement.
graphic rating scales  a method of performance evaluation under which the evaluator is supposed to provide a subjective evaluation of an employee’s performance along a scale from very poor to excellent or from very low to very high
grievance  any discontent or dissatisfaction arising from a feeling or a belief of injustice felt by an employee or a group of employees in connection with the work environment
grievance handling  to accept and solve grievances effectively (in order to maintain good labour-management relationship and employee motivation) and efficiently (minimising wastage of resources including time of handling)
gross misconduct an act committed by any personnel likely to lead to summary dismissal.
gross pay the total amount of money that the employer pays in wages to an employee
group dynamics the social manner in which people interact with each other within a group.
group technique  a job design technique that focuses on designing jobs to be performed by groups of employees team contemporary approach or team working method are two alternative terms
guideline information communicated in written or oral form which provides the context in which the work is to be accomplished or imposes constraints on what work is done and in what manner
halo effect  an evaluator error that occurs when an evaluator appraises an employee high or low on many or all criteria because of one criterion
handbook compilation of the policies, procedures, working conditions, and behavioral expectations that guide employee actions in a particular workplace
harassment unwelcome conduct from a boss, coworker, group of coworkers, vendor or customer whose actions, communication or behavior mocks, demeans, puts down, disparages or ridicules an employee
harshness  an evaluator error that occurs when the evaluator tends to be too harsh in evaluating performance
hawthorne effect a term produced as a result of an experiment conducted by elton mayo whereby he concluded that expressing concern for employees and treating them in a manner which fulfills their basic human needs and wants will ultimately result in better performance.
hazards  those aspects of the work environment which suddenly or slowly and cumulatively (and often irreversibly) lead to deteriorate health of an employee
head hunter  a special recruiter that tries to locate and attract the best or excellent people in the industry to apply for job vacancies of the client organisation on a fee
health  a state where physical and mental problems, which impair general and special activities of a person, do not exist within that person
health and safety management  all the activities involved in protecting and promoting physical and mental health of the employees so that they can perform jobs efficiently and effectively
health insurance insurance policy that will pay specified amounts of money to cover medical expenses or treatments
hierarchy of needs a psychology theory ascribed to abraham h. maslow in which he proposed that people will constantly seek to have their basic needs (sleep, food, water, shelter, etc.) fulfilled and that such needs ultimately determine behaviour.
hiring  the process of appointing the candidate selected to the post/job which is vacant
hiring freeze an employer decides to stop hiring employees for all non-essential positions
hiring manager the employee who requested a new position to be filled or an employee to fill an open job
hoarding  a problem due to promotions that occurs when a superior hides or keeps a subordinate because the release of the subordinate hampers or reduces the efficiency and effectiveness of the superior’s department
hot stove rule  a useful guide for corrective discipline that states that disciplinary action should have the same characteristics as the penalty a person receives from touching a hot stove and these characteristics are warning, immediacy, consistency and impersonality
hr audit a method by which human resources effectiveness can be assessed. can be carried out internally or hr audit systems are available.
hr field  an area or a major system of hrm consisting of several functions and a major work for which a separate hrm specialist can be employed
hr generalist  a human resource management person who is competent in several fields or areas in hrm because of performing many hrm functions or areas
hr information systems a discrete computerised information system for hr purposes.
hr management the management of human resources within an organisation.
hr planning the activity of planning human resources usually in connection with the overall strategic planning of the organisation.
hr requisition sheet  a special form used for the purpose of obtaining special requests from managers in respect of filling job vacancies
hr scorecard  a framework that links hrm with strategic objectives and shows the causal link between hrm and strategic objectives in a quantitative way it is an evaluative technique that attempts to measure hrm contribution to achievement of strategic goals of the organisation
hr specialist  a human resource management person who is highly competent in one particular field of hrm because of usually specialising in one area of hrm
human capital the collective knowledge, skills and abilities of an organisation’s employees.
human relation competency  the ability of understanding and dealing with people without creating disorders, conflicts and confusions
human resource  employees working for an organization who possess unique characteristics
human resource department  a special section of an organization established under the leadership of a manager specialized in hrm for ensuring that hrm is properly performed throughout the organization
human resource management  the efficient and effective utilization of human resources to achieve goals of an organization
human resource manager  manager who is responsible for the hrm function of an organization
human resource planning  the process of determining future employee needs and deciding steps or strategies to achieve those needs for the purpose of accomplishing organisation goals and objectives
human resources people that staff and operate an organization as contrasted with the financial and material resources of an organization; also name of a department or functional area from which the employees provide hr services to the rest of the organization
ideal profile matching model  a general selection approach that involves development of an ideal profile, match of candidates with the ideal profile and selection of the candidate who matches best with the ideal profile (assuming there is one vacancy to fill)
in-basket technique  a training method under which the trainee is given a special box that includes a number of business papers such as memoranda, reports, letters, e-mails and telephone messages that would typically come across a manager’s desk, and is required to act on the information contained in these business papers
incentive  a type of reward that is paid to encourage the employee to increase his/her productivity (normally beyond the normal level of productivity)
incentive pay additional compensation used to motivate and to reward employees for exceeding performance or productivity goals.
independent contractor a person who works for him/herself but has a contract for services with another person/organisation.
individual character  the aggregate of all of the relatively persistent moral qualities person has that combines to form his/her real nature it is the degree to which a person has virtues (responsibility, respect, honesty, patience etc . ) and vices (greed, jealousy, anger, stinginess, hostility etc)
individual employment agreement the legal relationship between an employee and employer.
individual incentive plans  a broad category of incentive plans which focus on individual job performance and then incentives are paid individually
individual interview  an interview consisting of one interviewer and one interviewee
induction the process of introducing a new employee into the organisation.
industrial relations  a wider concept relatively that involves all the feelings and dealings among workers and their organisations (trade unions); employers and their representatives; the government and its agents (labour ministry, labour department etc); employer federations; and union associations
informal forecast  a technique of forecasting demand for hr under which future demand for human resources is determined without a systematic base and it is done quickly and randomly
informal talk  a sort of counselling to be followed in case of a non-serious offence done for the first time or second time it is not punitive
in-house union  union set up within one organisation that accepts members working in that organisation only (alternatively called enterprise union)
innovator role  a role whereby hr department provides up-to-date application of current techniques and developing innovative approaches to hr problems
inputs equity  degree to which pay received by a particular employee in an organisation is related to his/her inputs used to perform duties of the job
inside payroll costs employee benefits costs that are not segregated as such, paid rest periods and pay for time not worked for vacation, holidays, sick leave
intangible rewards non-monetary re-enforcers such as praise given to an employee in recognition of a job well done, or a particular achievement.
intelligence test  a test that is held to assess the degree of general reasoning ability of the job applicant
interitem consistency reliability  the degree of reliability showing the consistency of answers given by the persons to all items in a test paper (or a part relating to a major concept or construct)
internal consistency  the consistency or coherence of the scores obtained by job candidates across the question items
internal employee referrals  requesting current employees who are working for the organisation concerned to send suitable job applicants for the job vacancies
internal equity  degree to which the pay is related to the relative worth of jobs similar pays must be paid for similar jobs and dissimilar pays must be paid for dissimilar jobs ; dissimilarity of pays must be equal to dissimilarity of jobs
internal recruitment policy  procuring candidates to fill vacancies within the organisation itself
international labour organisation an organisation set up by the united nations to establish, amongst other matters, conventions on practices in the workplace.
internship a temporary job at a work location that provides the work experience that an intern desires to obtain for any of the above reasons
interview  a face-to-face, oral and observational evaluation method of appraising an applicant’s acceptability with regard to a certain job
interview panel a group of interviewers, typically comprised of two or more job experts
intrinsic reward a reward given to an employee for achievement of a particular goal, objective or project.
iso 9000 developed by the international organisation for standardisation (iso), it is a set of standards for quality management systems that is accepted around the world. organisations that conform to these standards can receive iso 9000 certification. the standard intended for quality management system assessment and registration is iso 9001. the standards apply uniformly to organisations of any size or description.
job  a grouping of similar positions which have same duties and responsibilities
job analysis  a systematic investigation of jobs and job holder characteristics in order to create a collection of information that can be used to perform various hrm functions
job analysis checklist  a special form used to collect data about jobs and job holders
job cycle approach  to evaluate employee’s job performance after he/she finishes all the duties of the job for one time
job description a written description of a job which includes information regarding the general nature of the work to be performed, specific responsibilities and duties, and the employee characteristics required to perform the job.
job design  the function of arranging tasks, duties and responsibilities into an organisational unit of work for the purpose of accomplishing the primary goal and objectives of the organisation
job enlargement  to increase the scope of a job by including a new related duty or duties in addition to the current duties horizontal loading is an alternative term
job enrichment  to increase the depth of a job by expanding authority and responsibility for planning and controlling the job
job essentiality  degree to which the job is important or critical to the overall success of the organisation
job evaluation  a systematic process of determining the relative worth of jobs which are available within an organisation
job exclusivity  degree of difficulty in replacing the job holder
job grading/classification method  a job evaluation method in which job classes (larger groups) and grades (smaller groups) are created and then existing jobs are analysed and grouped according to the predetermined classes and grades these classes are arranged according to the order of relative importance
job inflation  a possible behavioural problem at job analysis employees may tend to inflate the importance of their jobs with an intention of getting higher pay or higher status or better title/more prestigious title
job involvement  the degree to which the employee takes part in the job
job needs analysis  a systematic attempt to identify training needs at the level of job
job offer an invitation for a potential employee, whether he or she has applied for a job, or not, to become an employee in your organization
job posting and bidding  notifying job vacancies inside the organisation and calling for applications from the working employees within the organisation
job pricing  the activity of assigning pays to a hierarchy of jobs in terms of their relative value to the organisation
job ranking method  a job evaluation method under which jobs are ranked from the most important to the least important according to the degree of relative contributions given by each job to achieve the organisational success
job rotation  to shift an employee from one job to another job within a certain period of time without limiting the employee to do a particular job only
job satisfaction  the extent of enjoyment an employee feels towards his/her job
job sharing  a part-time employment arrangement whereby two or more part-time employees share one full-time job
job specification  a document that specifies key qualifications an individual needs to perform a particular job
job-hopping  a practice of an employee in which he/she frequently changes jobs (within a shorter time)
joint consultation  a method of worker participation in which management and workers get together to discuss about problems of concern to both and, where appropriate, make decisions acceptable to both parties
key result areas used to establish standards and objectives, key result areas are the chief tasks of a job identified during the job evaluation process.
kpi’s ‘knowledge, skills and abilities’ – key performance indicators. tasks that have been agreed between an employee and line manager/hr with an expectation that they will be  completed satisfactorily in the time agreed or as an ongoing task.
ksas knowledge, skills and abilities – the personal attributes that a person has to have to perform the job requirements.
labor code all the legal rules governing the relations between employer and employee, enacted by the updated law 53/2003
labor market a geographical or occupational area in which factors of supply and demand interact
labour force mobility the willingness of potential employees to travel or move to where work is offered.
labour force participation a rate at which the number of people in the labour force is divided by the number of people of working age x 100.
labour market a geographical or occupational area in which factors of supply and demand interact.
labour relations  a narrower concept relatively that involves all the feelings and dealings between unions and managers in an organisation
labour-management relationship (lmr)  perceived degree of how well labour unions and managers in an organisation feel and behave towards each other
last-in-first-out (lifo)  a method of layoffs which involves doing first layoff of the employee who had been hired last
layoff  a temporary stoppage of the employment of an employee due to a reason or reasons which is/are generally not controllable by the management of the organisation
leadership the process, by which an individual determines direction, influences a group and directs them toward a specific goal or organisational mission.
leadership development formal and informal training and professional development programmes designed for all management and executive level employees to assist them in developing the leadership skills and styles required to deal with a variety of situations.
learning  the process of acquiring knowledge, skills and attitudes so as to create a relatively permanent change in learner’s behaviour
learning curve  a curve that shows the relationship between level of learning of an individual and time spent on that learning
learning principle  a guideline to be followed to develop a more successful training programme it makes learning more effective
leave of absence time allowed away from work, generally requested by an employee, to cover unusual circumstances occurring in the employee’s life
legal compliance  the extent to which management of employees is done in accordance with labour laws
legislation law emanating from parliament in the form of acts.
leniency  an evaluator error that occurs when the evaluator is too easy in his/her evaluation of job performance of an employee
letter of appointment  a special letter given by the employer to the new employee containing terms and conditions of employment
letter of resignation an official document for the employee’s personnel file that demonstrates the employment ending was employee initiated
level of work critical data about job content that reflects the job’s skill, effort, responsibility and working conditions
lifo in the event of a redundancy situation occurring, the system of ‘last in first out’ is regarded as the most equitable method of choosing those who should be made redundant.
line authority  legitimate power for giving orders to others to carry out
line manager  manager who manages a line department which makes or distributes the organisation’s goods or services
loose employee market  a market condition where the employee supply is abundant
lump sum payment a fixed negotiated payment which is not typically included in an employee’s annual salary. often times given in lieu of pay increases.
lump-sum merit pay  an individual incentive plan under which a single lump-sum merit pay is given to an excellent employee at the time of job performance review and this pay is not added to the base pay
macro requirements  conditions to be met at the national level for enhancing lmr
management  a process that deals with efficient and effective utilization of resources in order to achieve goals of an organization
management by objectives (mbo)  a method of performance evaluation that deals with determining objectives to be accomplished by the employee within a certain period of time and assessing the degree of success in accomplishing those objectives
management inventory  a document that catalogues education, experience and competencies of a manager
management of incentives  the process of development, implementation and maintenance of a fair and adequate system of incentives
managerial straitjacket  a possible behavioural problem at job analysis that limits management flexibility to assign new duties to an employee because employees may reject to perform duties which are not mentioned in the job description
matrix organisation an organisational structure where employees report to more then one manager or supervisor.
maxiflex system  a form of flex-time that has no core times and all the hours of working are flexible
mediation services the process of intervention by a specialist in an employment dispute. provided under the employment relations act 2000.
mediator  a role whereby hr department works as a conflict handler
medical examination  a special selection test that focuses on the physical fitness of the job candidate
medical leave absence from employment due to a serious personal health condition which makes the employee unable to perform his or her employment duties
meditation  a strategy used for managing stress that involves pondering or reflecting
mentor an employee who participates in a formal or informal relationship that is established between an experienced, knowledgeable employee and an inexperienced or new employee
mentoring a one-to-one process between an outside trainer and an employee, whereby the former will ‘train’ the latter.
merit  the degree of efficiency and effectiveness of the employee it is the value of the employee for organisational success and progress of success
merit pay  a type of individual incentive plan that gives a pay increase awarded to an employee based on his/her individual job performance (outstanding)
micro requirements  conditions to be met at the organisational level for enhancing lmr
minimum wage the minimum amount of money that an employer can pay an employee with a full time labor contract
minimum wages the lowest level of earnings of employees set by government.
mission statement  a formal statement of the purpose of a particular organisation it shows the reason or reasons for existence of the organisation being considered
mixed interview  an interview that has a blend of structured questions and unstructured questions
mobility of labor a worker’s ability to physically move around freely in the workplace to accomplish work
motivation  the extent to which employee exerts the needed effort to perform his or her job successfully
motivational theories an attempt to explain how people are motivated, in the form of work behaviour and performance.
multiple career  all the jobs a person has held in more than one certain field of professions
multiple choice method  a method of performance evaluation that has four or five statements under each performance evaluation criterion and the evaluator is supposed to select the statement which best applies to the relevant employee
multiple cut-off model  a general selection method that have a cut-off point with regard to each of the selection criteria to be considered for selection and to be selected for filling the job vacancy this model is an improved version of ideal profile matching model
multiple time-series design  an extension of the pre/post-measure control-group design with a difference that measuring happens at several times
mutuality of interests relating to performance management. both employer and employee have a mutual interest in achieving organisational objectives.
myers-briggs type indicator a psychological test used to assess an individuals personality type.
negative approach  an approach of penalising an offender with the objectives of retaliation, dismay, shame or discredit
negotiation the process of discussion with a view to mutual settlement usually by the means of a conference.
nepotism favouritism shown to relatives by individuals in a position of authority such as ceo’s, managers or supervisors.
net pay the total amount of money that the employer pays in a paycheck to an employee after all deductions are made
nominal group technique (ngt)  a technique that uses a group of seven to fifteen people who are competent for the purposes of identifying training needs of the organisation and/or a particular job or a particular group of employees and prioritizing those training needs identified
non compete agreement a written legal contract between an employer and employee that lays out binding terms and conditions about the employee’s ability to work in the same industry and with competing organizations upon employment termination from the current employer
non disclosure agreement a written legal contract between an employer and employee that lays out binding terms and conditions that prohibit the employee from disclosing company confidential and proprietary information
nonfinancial reward any form of recognition provided to employees other than cash
nonmonetary incentives  incentives which do not involve money incentive rewards (gift certificates, time off etc ) and recognition awards (plaques, employee of the month etc ) are two major nonmonetary incentives
nonverbal communication the transmission of information in addition to words in a communication by means of body language, facial expression, posture, eye contract, gestures, signs, clothing and other appurtenances such as brief cases, safety glasses and so forth, office decor, tone of voice and other aspects of paralinguistics, touch, physical space
objective criteria  factors of evaluation which are quantifiable distinctly
observation interview the process of observing employees while performing their respective jobs or tasks used to collect data regarding specific jobs or tasks.
occupation a generalized job or family of jobs common to multiple organizations or industries
occupational accident  a sudden event which causes a physical injury or physical injuries to an employee or two employees or more working on the employment in the organisation
occupational disease  an ailment that catches an employee due to the reason of performing tasks, duties and responsibilities of his/her job
ombudsman  a method of handling grievances in which a special respected, neutral person is appointed to cope with grievances he/she will accept grievances and facilitates towards settling the grievances
onboarding the process used for welcoming a new employee into an organization
online job application an application for a job that is filled out online and replaces the paper / pen / pencil job application form that was traditionally filled out while a job applicant visited a company or waited for an interview
on-the-job training teaching the skills, knowledge and competencies that are needed to perform a specific job within the workplace and work environment
open advertisement  a recruitment advertisement that gives the name of the organisation which wants to recruit and the address of the organisation
open door policy every manager’s door is open to every employee – policy used to develop employee trust and to make certain that important information and feedback reach managers who can utilize the information to make changes in the workplace
open-door policy  a method of handling grievances that allows every employee to see the chief executive officer of the organisation with grievance to settle
organisational culture a pattern that emerges from the interlocking system of the beliefs, values and behavioural expectations of all the members of an organisation.
organisational incentive plans  a broad category of incentive plans which focus on entire organisation performance and then incentives are paid organisationally
organisational needs analysis  a systematic attempt to identify training needs at the level of the organisation
organisational theories the scientific management movement and human relations school were two early organisational theories. both had impact on the development of human resources management.
organization  a formal group of two or more people who function in an official structure that was set purposefully to accomplish a certain goal or goals (common)
organizational citizenship  the degree to which the employees are willing to engage in non-official behaviours that help the organization achieve its goals as they love or wish its success and progress
organizational culture a pattern that emerges from the interlocking system of the beliefs, values and behavioural expectations of all the members of an organisation
orientation the introduction of employees to their jobs, co-workers, and the organisation by providing them with information regarding such items as policies, procedures, company history, goals, culture, and work rules. similar to induction.
osh occupational health and safety – the law relating to the health and safety of personnel at work.
outplacement a benefit offered by the employer to displaced employees which may consist of such services as job counselling, training, and job-finding assistance.
outsourcing a contractual agreement between an employer and an external third party provider whereby the employer transfers responsibility and management for certain hr, benefit or training related functions or services to the external provider.
overtime the hours that employees with full-time individual work contract work over 40 hours during a work week
paid holidays part of a compensation and benefits package offered by employers to attract and retain employees
paid parental leave supported by legislation allowing [possibly later in 2000] 12 weeks paid leave which a new mother may share with her partner, funded by a payroll levy.
paid personal days time off from work that an organization voluntarily provides employees as a benefit
paired comparison method  a method of performance evaluation under which the employees are evaluated in pairs taking an employee at a time and completing him/her against every other
panel interview  an interview consisting of more than one interviewer
parallel-form reliability  the degree of reliability obtained by giving two comparable tests to the same group of persons at two different times alternative term is equivalent form reliability
parental leave an employee benefit that provides paid or unpaid time off work to care for a child or make arrangements for the child’s welfare
pareto chart a bar graph used to rank in order of importance information such as causes or reasons for specific problems so that measures for process improvement can be established.
part time employee an employee who traditionally worked less than a 40 hour work week
participative approach  an approach that can be used for informal talk under which both discipline controller and offending employee get together, discuss and find a solution in order to avoid future rule violations
pay  major payment given by the employer to an employee for the contribution or service rendered by that employee it may be called wage or salary
pay management  the hrm function that deals with development, implementation and maintenance of a base pay system that is fair
pay secrecy/openness  the act of not revealing/revealing pay information to employees
pay survey  a type of research that deals with collection and analysis of information about wages and salaries being paid by similar/competitive organisations to employees who are doing similar jobs
paycheck a check issued by an employer in order to satisfy the compensation commitment the employer has with the employee
payroll the sum of all financial records of salaries for an employee, wages, bonuses and deductions
payroll deductions reductions that the employer makes from employees’ paychecks
pe interview  a performance review session that gives evaluee feedback in respect of his/her past performance assessed and improvement of future performance
pe renewal  revision of the pe programme to keep it dynamically alive and productive according to the result of the pe review
pe review  measuring the degree of effectiveness and efficiency of the pe programme and determining what should or should not be done in the future as a result of such measurement
peer appraisal a performance appraisal strategy whereby an employee is reviewed by his/her peers who have sufficient opportunity to examine the individual’s job performance.
penalties  actions that follow rule violations or infractions alternatively called as sanctions
perceptual-motor technique  a job design technique that considers matching requirements (tasks and duties) of the job with mental abilities and characteristics of the employees
performance evaluation criterion  a measure or factor of identifying success of job performance
performance management this is a process of identifying, evaluating and developing the work performance of employees in an organisation, in order that organisational objectives are more effectively achieved and understood by employees.
performance planning a total approach to managing people and performance. involving setting performance aims and expectations for the organisation, departments and individuals employees.
peripheral labour force employees less critical to organisational success and can be expendable.
perks employee benefits, usually in addition to salary and standard employee benefits
permanent employee a person who is an employee as a result of a permanent appointment, whether or not the employee has attained permanent status
person needs analysis  a systematic attempt to identify training needs at the level of employee
person/job fit  to match characteristics of the employee with characteristics of the job
personal grievance a complaint brought by one party to an employment contract against another party.
personal prejudice  an evaluator error that occurs when excessively low or high ratings are given by the evaluator only to a certain evaluee or certain evaluees because of race, age, sex, religion, cast, personal relationship, jealousy, dislike etc
personality  it is about values, preferences, likes, and dislikes of a person it includes your talk, your physical appearance, your walk, and other unique features
personality test  an examination that attempts to identify personality (psychological characteristics) of the candidate
personnel file an employers’ saved documentation of the history and status of the entire employment relationship with an individual employee
point allocation method  a method of performance evaluation under which the evaluator is given a total number of points and is required to allocate these points among employees in the group according to the relative worth
point matrix  the way of allocating points among the critical factors, sub critical factors and the levels under the point system
point system  the most appropriate job evaluation method in which jobs’ relative worth is evaluated according to a systematic quantitative procedure that takes into account several specific factors and their levels this method uses points for factors and levels
policy initiator and formulator  a role whereby hr department initiates and formulates new policies regarding hrm issues
politicalisation  politicalisation of labour unions refers to a situation where labour unions become more political or involved in politics rather than becoming engaged in the protection and promotion of the standard of living of their union members
position  a collection of tasks, duties and responsibilities to be performed by one person
positive approach  an approach of penalising an offender with the objective of reformation
positive discrimination see affirmative action.
post-employment vetting  a systematic attempt done to make sure that someone is suitable for a particular post after hiring
post-measure  assessing success of the training programme after ending it
practicability  the degree to which the test can be used for selecting a particular person or persons to fill job vacancies
practical or work sample text  an examination that measures how well the candidate can do a sample of actual duties on the job
pre/post-measure  assessing the training programme’s success before the training and after the training as well
pre/post-measure control-group design  a good training evaluation approach in which the exact impact of training on performance is determined by using two groups, ie, control group (to which training is not given) and experimental group (to which training is given)
precedent an earlier event or action that is regarded as an example or guide to be considered in subsequent similar circumstances.
predictive validity  the extent to which the test relates to some measure of job performance
preventive discipline  activities carried out to encourage employees to adhere to organisational rules in order to prevent from breaches of them
primary equity  degree to which pay is capable of meeting primary needs of the employee
probationary arrangements where the parties to an employment agreement agree as part of the agreement that an employee will serve a period of probation or trial after the commencement of the employment.
probationary period  a certain period of time during which a new employee, who was hired for a permanent post, works for an organisation during this period the new employee will have to prove that he/she is capable of performing the job successfully in order to get confirmation
problem solving  a pe feedback interview type that involves a participative problem solving in which an active and open dialogue is established between the evaluator and the evaluee, focusing on performance problems
problem-solving interview  an interview that has a set of questions that the applicant will have to face actually or may have to face on the job if he/she is placed on that job
procedure the specific steps, rules, or methods followed in order to accomplish program objectives or implement policies
product differentiation  a strategy in which an organisation gains a competitive advantage by producing a good or service that is preferred by customers
professional technique  a job design technique by which jobs are designed according to a certain accepted profession
profit sharing  an organisational incentive plan that shares profits with all the employees of the organisation
programmed instruction  a training method that allows the trainee to learn through self study and it involves distance learning
progressive discipline  a discipline programme, which progresses from the least severe to the most severe in terms of disciplinary actions
promotion a form of recognition for employees who make significant and effective work contributions
quality management the process or system of ensuring that a product or service should do what the user needs or wants and has a right to expect. there are five dimensions to quality, design, conformance, availability, safety and field use.
quality of work life  the degree to which employee expectations are met by the job and the job environment it includes level of well-being enjoyed by employees by fulfilling their expectations relating to the jobs  also it is the extent to which all employees have the opportunity of presenting their ideas, suggestions, and opinions before making decisions which affect them
quasi method  a method of handling grievances in which a human resource specialist represents the grievant and attempts to find a solution for the grievance to a certain degree of satisfaction of the grievant
quasi-promotion  a type of promotion that does not have a change with regard to duties and responsibilities
raise an increase in the amount of hourly pay or salary that an employee receives for work performed in an organization
random testing drug and alcohol tests administered by an employer which selects employees to be tested on a random basis.
rank order method  a method of performance evaluation that requires the evaluator to rate employees from the best to the worst on some given criteria
ratio analysis  a forecasting technique of hr demand that makes forecasts based on the ratio between some causal factor and the number of employees required
real shock  a strong feeling of distress of the new employee owing to realizing that the expected state is different from the actual state reality shock is an alternative term
realistic job preview  a method of providing deliberately actual information to the applicant or the new employee with regard to the job, the organisation’s expectations of the job holder and the work environment
recency effect  when the evaluator’s ratings are heavily influenced by results and/or behaviours done and/or exhibited by the evaluee near the end of the pe period, the error of recency effect occurs
recruitment  the process of finding and attracting suitably qualified people to apply for employment
recruitment message  a notice used to notify people that there are job vacancies in the organisation and to invite them to apply for the vacancies
redundancy the act of dismissing an employee when that employee is surplus to the requirements of the organisation.
reliability  the extent to which the test produces consistent results when it is repeated to the same person or group of persons
remuneration remuneration includes any payment made under a contract for services.
replacement chart  a visual representation of successors in the event of job vacancies succession chart is an alternative term
replacement charts a summarisation in visual form the numbers of incumbents in each job or family of jobs, the number of current vacancies per job and the projected future vacancies.
replacement summary  a document in which successor for a job vacancy has been decided and mentioned with his/her relative strengths and weaknesses
request for proposal (rfp) a document an organisation sends to a vendor inviting the vendor to submit a bid for a product or, service.
resignation  a quit or giving up the job by an employee
restrictive covenant a contract clause requiring executives or other highly skilled employees to refrain from seeking and obtaining employment with competitor organisations in a specific geographical region and for a specified period of time.
results  outcomes or outputs produced by the employee
resume a document that provides an employer with a detailed statement of a job candidate’s prior work experience, education and accomplishments
retirement  a form of employee separation that involves leaving an employee from the organisation after he/she has reached the age at which a pension can be obtained
retrenchment  the permanent termination of the employment of an employee or the employments of employees due to a surplus of employees within the organisation an alternative term is redundancy
return on investment (roi) a ratio of the benefit or profit derived from a specific investment compared to the cost of the investment itself.
rewards  a generic term to include wages and salaries, incentives, and welfare facilities and benefits compensation and remuneration are two alternative terms
right to manage the ‘right’ of management to make decisions and to run an organisation without interference from external or internal forces.
risk management the use of insurance and other strategies in an effort to minimize an organisation’s exposure to liability in the event a loss or injury occurs.
role playing  a training method that gives training by allowing learners to act out a particular situation
rules  official instructions in respect of what employees must and are allowed to do and what they are not allowed to do
safety  protection of the physical health of employees from the danger of accidents
salary is a term used most commonly to describe a base pay which is set at an annual rate and remains unchanged from one pay period to the next, regardless of the number of hours an employee may work.
sandwich approach  an approach that can be used for informal talk under which a corrective comment (negative) is sandwiched between two positive comments in order to make the corrective comment more acceptable to the offender
scalar chain a concept from the french industrialist henri fayol who established the concept of unity of command [‘ and employee should receive orders from one superior only ’] from the ultimate authority to the lowest ranks………the line of authority followed by all communications ’]. and scalar chain [‘ the chain of superiors ranging
scientific technique  a technique that groups a limited number of small parts to create a job which is specialised mechanistic approach is an alternative term
scope of a job  contents of the job or amount and variety of duties
screening interview type of interview used to qualify a candidate before he or she meets with a hiring manager for possible selection
selection  the process of making the choice of the most appropriate person from the pool of job applicants recruited to fill the relevant job vacancy
selection ratio the ratio of the number of people hired to the number of suitably qualified candidates obtained.
self evaluation and discussion  a method of performance evaluation under which the employee himself or herself does evaluation and later the superior modifies it during the discussion
self-discipline  the ability of an employee to control himself/herself and to make himself/herself behave in the expected way without needing management to tell him/her what to do
seniority  the length of time an employee has served for the organisation
sensitivity training  a training method that gives training in a group setting in order to enhance interpersonal skills
sexual harassment a form of discrimination that occurs when one employee makes continued, unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature, to another employee, against his or her wishes
shift  a group of employees who work for a period of time during the day or evening or night, and then replaced by another group of employees in order to continue producing a certain good or providing a certain service
shift work occurs in a work schedule that utilizes 24 hours a day and occasionally, 7 days a week, to keep an organization operating
sick leave paid time off from work when an employee is temporarily ill and coming to work would pose potential contagion to other employees
six sigma six sigma is a disciplined, data-driven methodology used to eliminate defects and improve processes and cut costs from manufacturing to transactional and from product to service.
skill variety  the extent to which the job requires use of different skills
skills builder  an assignment or an exercise that aims at allowing the trainee to develop a certain skill or certain skills rather than knowledge
skills inventory  a document that catalogues education, experience and competencies of a non-manager
socialisation  a period of adjustment in which the new employee learns what is expected by the organisation and tries to become a part of social fabric of the organisation
specialisation  an employee’s concentration on one particular type of work so that he/she secures an expertise in that type of work
split-half reliability  the degree of reliability obtained after dividing the test into two parts
stability  consistency of the examination scores obtained by the same person when repeated over two or several times
staff authority  legitimate power for giving advice and suggestions
staff manager  manager who manages a staff department which provides line managers with necessary instructions, facilities and supports to produce and distribute the organisation’s goods or services efficiently and effectively
staffing table  a short-term hr plan that specifies job vacancies by type and number which need to be filled
stakeholders the term given to the situation whereby firms have a number of groups, each having their own set of interests, possibly conflicting with each other.
standard hour plan  a type of individual incentive plan under which the employee is paid an incentive if he/she completes a work or job in less than the standard time
standard of living  the level of well-being enjoyed by people by fulfilling their legally and morally acceptable needs
standardisation  discover the ‘one best way’ to do a particular duty/job with more simplicity and lower cost through studies, informing that best way to every employee to accept and having each employee to follow it
standards  levels of successful and unsuccessful performance with regard to a performance evaluation criterion they indicate rating scales
statutory welfare  welfare services to be given by the organisation according to legal requirements imposed by the government
stock options  an employee ownership plan that gives employees the opportunity to buy the company’s stock at a previously fixed price
straight commission plan  an incentive plan that rewards the employee by paying an incentive based on a percentage of sales made by that employee
straight piecework  a type of individual incentive plan in which the employee is paid a sum for each unit produced by him/her
straight salary plan  an incentive plan that gives a fixed salary to the sales employee irrespective of the value of sales or number of units sold
strategic architecture the core competencies that an organisation has.
strategic hrm the process of aligning human resources more closely to the strategic and operating objectives of the organisation.
strategic hrm metrics  statistics used to measure the degree of success of accomplishment of the strategic goals and objectives of hrm
strategic management  a systematic process of defining organisation’s philosophy, vision, mission and objectives, and determining a strategy for achieving its vision, mission and objectives purpose of strategic management is to accomplish a sustainable competitive advantage
strategic metrics  statistics used to measure the degree of success of accomplishment of the strategic objectives of the organisation
strategic planning the process of identifying an organisation’s long-term goals and objectives and then determining the best approach for achieving those goals and objectives.
strategy  the organisation’s long-term plan (strategic plan) for how it will match its internal strengths and weaknesses with its external opportunities and threats to achieve or maintain or enhance a competitive advantage
strategy-oriented hrm system  a system of hrm functions, strategies and actions which leads directly to achieve the strategic objectives, mission and vision of the organisation it is a system of hrm functions directly linking with the strategic needs of the organisation to achieve and enhance the competitive advantage
stress  what an employee experiences internally in response to an event or a situation or a thing he/she finds difficult to deal with it is the pressure or strain an employee feels in life
stress interview  an interview that has questions which are asked intentionally to annoy, embarrass or frustrate the applicant with the purpose of examining the ability of the candidate to face such questions
structural capital the databases, customer files, manuals, trademarks etc that remain in a firm once employees go home.
structured interview  an interview that includes a predetermined set of questions that is addressed to each applicant
subject competency test  a paper and pencil type examination designed to evaluate the candidate’s knowledge and skills on a particular subject acquired usually as a result of classroom education or standardized instruction
subjective criteria  factors of evaluation which are not quantifiable distinctly
succession planning involving identifying a potential candidate to replace core individual employees either known to be leaving the firm at some point in the future and/or whose sudden departure would pose a risk to the operation of the firm.
summary dismissal the act of dismissing personnel immediately, usually because the person has committed some act of gross misconduct.
suspension a form of disciplinary action resulting in an employee being sent home without pay for a specified period of time.
tangible rewards rewards which can be physically touched or held (i.e. a gift certificate, gifts in the form of merchandise, or a savings bond).
task identity  the extent to which the job involves doing some complete piece of work
task significance  the extent to which the job has an impact on other employees’ works
task-based approach to job analysis  an approach that focuses on analysing jobs in terms of tasks, duties, responsibilities and key qualifications needed to perform those tasks, duties and responsibilities
team building the process of turning a group of individuals into a cohesive team, a group of people organized to work together interdependently and cooperatively to meet the needs of their customers by accomplishing a purpose and goals
team incentive plan  a collective incentive plan which gives an incentive bonus to all team members when certain production or service standards are met
team incentive plans  a broad category of incentive plans which focus on group job performance and then incentives are paid collectively
technical competency  the ability to use tools, techniques and methods to perform a task or an activity
telecommuting  an alternative work schedule whereby the employee works at home usually using a computer
tell-and-listen type  a pe feedback interview type where the evaluator allows the evaluee to explain reasons, excuses and defensive feelings regarding performance ratings, by enhancing two-way communication
tell-and-sell type   a pe feedback interview type where the evaluator tells the degree to which the evaluee has performed the job during the period and sells him/her steps to be taken for improvement, by allowing for one-way communication only
temporary employee an employee hired only for limited periods of time, directly by the company or obtained from a temporary staffing agency
temporary working agency a company that provides workers to a variety of businesses via short-term contracts or indefinite temporary positions
termination  the complete end of service of an employee by the employer this is a type of employee separation that may be initiated and finalised either by the management of the organisation or by the particular employee whose service is ended permanently
termination for cause occurs when an employee makes a severe error in actions or judgment
test-retest reliability  the degree of reliability obtained by giving the same test to the same group of persons (job candidates or employees) at two different times
the scatter plot  a forecasting technique of hr demand that is used to help identify the relationship between a measure of business activity and the number of organisation’s employees graphically
theory x & theory y two conflicting assumptions which are behind thinking on human nature and human behaviour as related to the employee and the workplace.
tight employee market  a market condition where the employee supply is scant
total remuneration the complete pay package awarded employees on an annual basis, including all forms of money, benefits, services, and in-kind payments.
trade union  a formal organisation of employees established with the primary purpose of protecting and enhancing the well-being of its members
training  making the employee ready to perform the current job
training and development a process dealing primarily with transferring or obtaining knowledge, attitudes and skills needed to carry out a specific activity or task.
training needs analysis a method of analysing how employee skill deficits can be addressed through current or future training and professional development programs, as well as determining the types of training/development programs required, and how to prioritise training/development.
traits  particular qualities or characteristics the employee possesses
transfer  the moving of an employee within the same job/class/grade moving may be from one job to another job, from one place to another place, from one time to another time, or from office to field or vice versa
travel expenses expenditures that an employee makes while traveling on company business
trial period the time period during which an employee’s performance is evaluated upon to attaining permanent status
turnover describes changes in the work force resulting from voluntary or involuntary resignations.
type i structure of hr department  organizational structure of the hr department usually adopted by a small growing organization where head is in the first line management
type ii structure of hr department  organizational structure of the hr department usually adopted by a medium-size organization where head is in the middle management
type iii structure of hr department  organizational structure of the hr department usually adopted by a large organization where head is in the top management
understudy  a training method in which a senior manager trains a junior manager on the job so that the senior manager is replaced by the junior manager at a later time
unemployment occurs when a person who is actively searching for employment is unable to find work; often used as a measure of the health of the economy
uniformity  a criterion stating that similar decisions for the same issue should be made by all managers in the organisation
union multiplicity  a situation where there are more than one trade union existing at organisational level
unions groups of workers who have formed incorporated associations relating to the type of work that they perform.
unit forecasting  a forecasting technique of hr demand that uses a ‘bottom up’ approach under which each unit head prepares relevant unit’s employee needs and finally the ceo prepares  the plan of employee needs for the whole organisation basing on units’ needs
unitary career  all the jobs a person has held in a certain field of employment or a certain profession
unjustifiable dismissal the act of terminating an employee’s employment agreement for a reason that the employment relations authority or employment court regards as unjustifiable.
unstructured interview  an interview that does not have a predetermined set of questions and in which different questions are asked from applicants depending on their backgrounds and responses
vacancy a classified position to which a permanent appointment may be made after the appointing authority has initiated an action to fill that position
vacation of employment  a type of terminations that occurs due to a long absence of the employee without authorized leave raising the reasonable inference that he/she does not intend to return to work
validity  a test’s validity is the extent to which the test measures what it intends to measure
variable pay employee compensation that changes as compared to salary which is paid in equal proportions throughout the year; generally used to recognize and reward employee contribution toward company productivity, profitability, team work, safety, quality or some other metric deemed important
vestibule training  a training method that involves simulation training is given in an artificial place
view point  a standpoint referring to the way of thinking about a thing in particular
vision  a mental picture or dream of the long-term future of the organisation in which one imagines how organisational affairs should be different from the way they are now
volunteer a person who receives no compensation; or is paid expenses, reasonable benefits, a nominal fee or any combination thereof to perform some services
wage curve depicts pay rates currently being paid for each job within a pay grade in relation with the rankings awarded to each job during the job evaluation process.
wage drift the gap between the collective agreement rate and the rate actually paid. evidence of geographical variations in wage levels.
wage garnishment the process of taking money from an employee’s compensation to pay off a debt that the employee owes, usually the result of a court order
wage level the average salary paid to workers in an occupation
wages wages – is a term used most commonly to describe a base pay which is calculated on a hourly, daily or weekly basis. depending on whether the employment is permanent, of the applicable employment agreement. the amount of wages will vary (usually) according to the number of hours the employee works.temporary or casual, full time or part-time basis, or according to the requirements
walk-ins  job seekers who come to the organisation in search of jobs
welfare programme  a scheme that has been developed for a particular welfare service a welfare scheme consists of objectives, policies, rules, budget and other elements
wellness programme programmes such as on-site or subsidised fitness centres, health screenings, smoking cessation, weight reduction/management, health awareness and education which target with absenteeism, lost productivity and increased health insurance claims.keeping employees healthy therefore lowering costs to the employer associated
whistleblower whistle blower protection is contained in the protected disclosures act 2000. the act provides protection to employees against retaliation for reporting illegal acts of suspending or harassing the whistle blower. employer retaliation of any kind may result in the whistle blower bringing a personal grievance against the employer.employers. an employer may not rightfully retaliate in any way, such as discharging, demoting,
work hours those hours for which an employee is paid that are actually worked and not charged to some type of paid or unpaid leave
work sharing  an alternative work schedule whereby all employees have to share a condensed work (reduced number of working hours per day)
work simplification  to reduce the scope of the job by removing some duties (increasing specialisation)
worker reaction effect  a negative result of grievances: reduced worker effort as a reaction to the perceived unfair administration of the employment contract
work-life balance having a measure of control over when, where and how an individuals works, leading to their being able to enjoy an optimal quality of life. work-life balance is achieved to the mutual benefit of the individual, business and society.when an individual’s right to a fulfilled life inside and outside paid work is accepted and respected as the norm,
workplace the location at which an employee provides work for an employer; can be located in a variety of settings including offices, manufacturing facilities or factories, stores, farms, out-of-doors and in any location where work is performed
workplace bullying persistent, offensive, abusive, intimidating or insulting behaviour or unfair actions directed at another individual, causing the recipient to feel threatened, abused, humiliated or vulnerable.
write-ins  job seekers who write to the organisation by sending their applications
zipper clause a provision in a collective bargaining agreement that specifically states that the written agreement is the complete agreement of the parties and that anything not contained therein is not agreed to unless put into writing and signed by both parties following the date of the agreement